The whole region of the Middle East around Amman is where the cornerstones of human history lie. Thus, to visit Amman is to learn about the origin of human society. Amman is arguably one of the first human settlements in history. During the Iron Age, Amman was addressed in the Old Testament as Rabbath-Ammon . At this time, around 1200 BC, the town existed where the citadel now stands. It was also called the “City of Waters.” Over time, the land was quite a controversial area, as the Ammonites were defeated by the Assyrians who were defeated by Persians who were finally defeated by the Greeks in the 3 rd Century.
During these Hellenistic times around 3rd century BC, the City was built up by the Greeks and renamed Philadelphia which in Greek means "The Brotherhood Love" after the Ptolemaic ruler Philadelphus (283-246 BC). Then in 1 st century, the Romans took control of Philadelphia and reconstructed it to resemble other Roman city with columns, amphitheaters, roman bath houses, and streets. During this Roman rule, Philadelphia was part of the Decapolis League, alongside 10 other Roman-governed cities in the Arab world.
In 324 AD during Byzantine times, Christianity became the religion of the empire and many beautiful churches were built. In 614 AD, the city was conquered by Persian Sassians before Islamic Arab armies won over the city in 635. During this time, Philadelphia became Ammon which was changed to Amman . During the early Islamic Era, Amman was important due to its trade roads and access to the sea.
Then, in 1878, colony of Circassian emigrants under Ottoman rule settled in Amman. As the Great Arab Revolt progressed, Emir Abdullah ibn Al-Hussein founder of the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan made Amman his capital in 1921. In World War I, Turkey used Amman as a military base. After the war, the British controlled it when the Ottoman Empire fell in 1918. Only in 1946 did Jordan receive full independence and Amman was named capital.